Blepharoplasty or eyelid surgery is a plastic surgery procedure to repair droopy eyelids by removing excess skin, muscle or fat from the upper and lower eyelids. With aging a lack of skin elasticity, combined with the constant pull of gravity, and the weakness of supporting muscles, causes excessive skin to collect into the upper and lower eyelids. Excess skin on the upper eyelids causes an extrafold of skin forms, which can hang over the eyelashes and obstruct vision.On the lower eyelids it causes wrinkles and bulges. Bulges in the eyelids can also be caused by the fat that cushions the eyeball from the skull. The thin membrane that hold the fat in place weakens with age, allowing the fat to protrude into the lids.Sagging or drooping eyelids occur naturally with increasing age. However, some people are born with droopy eyelids or develop diseases that cause eyelids drooping (ptosis) due to poor muscle tone or nerve damage (such as myasthenia gravis).
Plastic surgery may restore a youthful and refreshed appearance to the eyes, but it will not remove wrinkles, such as crow's feet, lift sagging eyebrows, or eliminate dark circles under the eyes.Blepharoplasty can be done alone or in conjunction with other plastic facial surgery procedures such as facelift. It will not stop the eyes from aging, but the more alert and yout,hful look usually lasts for years. Moreover, an eyelid lift is needed for those who have excessive eyelid drooping that interferes with vision.
For the upper eyelid, the incision is made in the natural crease line that occus 1 cm above the eyelashes, The incisions might extend into the crow's feet or laughter lines at the outer corners of the eye. Working through the incisions the surgeon separates the skin from the subcutaneous layers, removes fat when indicated, and trims sagging muscle and skin . The incisions are then closed with very fine sutures. Surgery of the lower eyelids may be done using one of several techniques and may or may not require sutures depending upon the techniques used. The transconjunctival technique is performed by making an incision inside the eyelid. No incision is visible after surgery. Through the incision fat may be removed to correct baggy lower eyelids ; then fine lines in the skin can be softened using a CO2 or erbium laser. This type may benefit patients with protruding fat and dark circles under the eyes and no too much extra skin. Another method, called the transcutaneous technique requires an incision along the eyelash margin. Through the incision, excess skin, loose muscle and fat can be removed. The incision line fades after a short amount of time. After either of these procedures, laser resurfacing may be recommended. The complications of blepharoplasty are extremely uncommon.